FormulaBT™

FormulaBT™ (Battery Technology) are carbon and graphitic powders, specifically developed by Superior Graphite, and are primarily used in the energy conversion marketplace. Combined with a variety of purification, milling and/or surface treatment techniques and processes, FormulaBT™ provides the market with high purity, superior quality, and high performance products.

FormulaBT™ products are used in a variety of energy and thermal management applications such as: Advanced Lead-acid (Lead-carbon) Batteries, Li-ion Batteries, Alkaline Batteries, Fuel Cells, and Thermal Management.

Advanced Lead-Acid Batteries

Advanced Lead-acid (Lead-carbon) Batteries – FormulaBT™ products, made with high purity natural graphite or expanded graphite, provide a variety of benefits in the production and performance of Lead-carbon batteries.

Benefits include:

Significant Cycle Life Improvement

Significant reduction in growth of large lead sulfate crystals on the negative electrode surface, and promotion of the uniform formation of lead sulfate throughout the negative electrode under high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) conditions.

Capacity Improvement

Enhancement of high-rate capability and the charge efficiency of the negative plates through providing excellent electrical conductivity.

Chemical Stability

No chemical interference with other electrode components.

Fig. 01

SEM of Expanded Graphite

Fig. 02

Number of HRPSoC Micro Cycles Completed to 80% Nominal Capacity or Termination

Li-ion Batteries

FormulaBT™ products, made with coated natural spherical graphite, provide a variety of benefits in the production and performance of Li-ion batteries.

Benefits include:

High Reversible Capacity

Provides close to the theoretical capacity of 372 mAh/g to meet energy requirements for high-energy Li-ion battery applications, e.g. electric vehicles, e-bikes, and others.

Low Irreversible Loss

Irreversible capacity as low as 5% to maximize the efficiency (determined in Hoshen half cells).

Long Cycle Life

A selective permeable surface layer prevents electrolytes from intercalating into the graphite, thereby avoiding the decomposition of the graphite.

Excellent High-Rate Capacity

Functional additives in the surface layer lead to higher electrical conductivity, and better high-rate capacity.

High Adhesion

Excellent adhesion to the substrate to improve battery-manufacturing processability.

Fig. 03

SEM of Spheroidal Graphite

Fig. 04

Electrochemical Behavior of SLC1520T at C/10 and C/20 in EC/DMC/LiPF6 at Room Temperature

Alkaline Batteries

FormulaBT™ products, made with high purity natural graphite or expanded graphite, provide a variety of benefits in the production and performance of alkaline batteries.

Benefits include:

Excellent Electrical Conductivity

Provides excellent electrical and thermal conductivity at the lowest possible concentration of graphite in electrode systems.

High Lubricity

Substantially reduces tool wear in the manufacturing process of the cathode rings.

Compressibility for High Mechanical Strength

Provides outstanding mechanical stability and integrity in the compressed electrodes.

Chemical Stability

No chemical interference with active materials in the electrode mix, or with electrolytes.

Fig. 05

SEM of Purified Flake

Fig. 06

Electrical Resistivity of MnO2/Graphite Mix as a Function of the Graphite Content

Fuel Cells

FormulaBT™ products, made with high purity natural graphite, provide a variety of benefits in the production and performance of fuel cells.

Benefits Include:

  • Excellent electrical conductivity
  • High thermal conductivity
  • High purity (>= 99.90% LOI)
  • High crystallinity (~100% crystallinity)
  • High compatibility with binders
  • Low corrosion

Fig. 07

Diagram of parts and functionality of a Fuel Cell

Thermal Management

FormulaBT™ products, made with high purity natural graphite or expanded graphite, provide a variety of benefits in the production and performance of thermal management foils/sheets.

Benefits include:

  • Excellent thermal conductivity
  • Low density powders
  • High purity (>= 99.90% LOI)
  • High crystallinity (~100% crystallinity)
  • Easy processing of compound

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